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Harry's Cosmeticology 9th Edition Volume 3
Harry's Cosmeticology 9th Edition Volume 3

Our Price: $350.00

Product Code: 9780820601786

ISBN-13/EAN: 9780820601786
Editor-In-Chief: Meyer R. Rosen
Chemical Publishing
Book - Hardback
Pub Date: Sept 2015
1100 pages
Harry's Cosmeticology 9th Edition Volume 3

Part 6 Formulating
Part 7 Sensory Characterization
Part 8 Delivery Systems
Part 9 Nutracosmetics
Part 10 Nanocosmetics
Part 11 Testing
Part 12 Sustainability
Part 13 Cosmetic Manufacturing
Part 14 Packaging
Part 6 Formulating

Formulating Cosmetics and Personal Care Products


Charles Warren
President, Charles F. Warren Consulting Inc


Charles Warren Charles F. Warren Consulting Inc.

Eva Patel, Skin Rx

Gurpreet (Gogi) Sangha, CEO of G.S. Cosmeceutical

Mark Lees, Ph.D., M.S., CIDESCO Diplomate

Germain Puccetti, Ashland Chemical

Nevine Issa, and Hani Fares Ph.D.

Carrie Shipley, Grain Processing Corporation

Padmaja Prem, VP of Combe's Global Research

Skin Care


6.1 Formulating Wisdom Category by Category (Author: Charles Warren)

6.2 Skin Lightening, Whitening, and Brightening:
An Overview of Approaches, Key Ingredients, and Formulations for Enhancing Skin Appearance and Correcting/Minimizing Common Skin Pigmentation Disorders
(Authors: Eva Patel and Gogi Sangha)

6.2.1 Definitions
6.2.2 Common Skin Pigmentation Disorders
6.2.3 Triggers for Hyperpigmentation
6.2.4 Pathway to Hyperpigmentation
6.2.5 Formulating IngredientsA Plethora of raw materials and how they come into play
6.2.6 Formulations for Individual Skin Conditions
6.2.7 Claims / Regulations for USA

6.3 Sunscreens (Author Charles Warren)

6.4 Antiperspirants / Deodorants (Author Charles Warren)

6.5 Acne, Oily, ad Aging Skin Product Formulation (Author Mark Lees)

6.5.1 Introduction

a. The Acne-Prone and Clog-Prone Skin: A Client Profile

6.5.2. Review of factors in acne development

a. Genetics
b. The Development of Acne Lesions
c. Hormonal Factors
d. Topical and Environmental Factors

6.5.3 Management of acne-prone skin

a. Sebum/oiliness management
b. Follicular Keratolytics
c. Avoidance of Acnegenic and Comedogenic Products

6.5.4 A Program Approach

a. Case Studies


6.6 Face and Body - Masks / Scrubs (Author Charles Warren)

6.6.1 Cleansers/Scrubs
6.6.2 Wipes
6.6.3 Moisturizers
6.6.4 Treatments
6.6.5 Perfumes/Fragrances

6.7 Shaving Preparations: Pre and Post (Author Charles Warren)
6.7.1 Men's Products
a. Shave Creams
b. After-Shave Lotions
6.7.2 Women's Products
a. Shaving Products
b. Depilatories
c. Bleaches

Pigmented Cosmetics

6.8 Color Cosmetics: An Introduction to Formulation and Approaches for Mascaras, Foundations and Lipsticks
(Authors: Germain Puccetti, Nevine Issa, and Hani Fares)

6.8.1 Color cosmetics and the consumer perspective

6.8.2 Foundations

a. Formulas
b. Pigments

6.8.3 Lipsticks and lip-glosses

a. Formulas
b. Color
c. Gloss ingredients
d. Oils
e. Waxes
f. Solvents
g. Silicones
h. Polymers
i. Additional ingredients

6.8.4 Mascaras

a. Basic formulation
b. Advanced ingredients

6.8.5 Skincare actives in foundations and lipsticks


Hair Care

6.9 Formulating Wisdom Category by Category

6.10 Shampoos
Ingredients, Formulation and Efficacy Evaluation
(Author Carrie Shipley, Applications Scientist, Grain Processing Corporation)


Section I: Typical Shampoo Ingredients

6.10.1 Surfactants
6.10.2 Rheology and Viscosity Modifiers
6.10.3 Other Shampoo Ingredients
6.10.4 Fragrance
6.10.5 Preservatives
6.10.6 Types of Shampoos

Section II: Hair-Cleansing Mechanism

6.10.7 Cleaning of solid particulates
6.10.8 Cleaning of oily soil
6.10.9 Efficacy of soil removal by shampoos
6.10.10 Cleaning of sebum
6.10.11 Cleaning of quaternary ammonium compounds
6.10.12 Cleaning of polymeric residue
6.10.13 Effect of shampoos on hair

Section III: Shampoo Evaluation

Section IV: Future Trends in Shampoos


6.11 Hair Styling (Author Charles Warren)

a. Nonpressurized Styling Products
b. Pressurized Styling Products

6.12 Specialty Styling Products (Author Charles Warren)
6.13 Permanent Waving (Author Charles Warren)
6.14 Conditioners/Treatments (Author Charles Warren)

6.15 Hair Colorants and Protection
(Author: Padmaja Prem Vice President, Research & Development
Combe Incorporated, 1101 Westchester Avenue
White Plains, NY 10604)

6.15.1 Introduction
6.15.2 Fundamentals of Hair Coloring
6.15.3 Factors Influencing Color Fading and Color Removal
6.15.4 Color Protection
6.15.5 Color Vibrancy and Shine
6.15.6 Remedies for Color Protection, Vibrancy, and Shine
6.15.7 Ingredients and Products for Color-Treated Hair
6.15.8 Conclusions


6.16 Reactive Hair Care Products (Author Charles Warren)

6.16.1 Colors
6.16.2 Bleaches
6.16.3 Straighteners

6.17 Formula/Product Development from the Formulator's Viewpoint (Expectations, Initial Prototypes, Final Prototypes) (Author Charles Warren)

6.17.1 Functionality/Performance
6.17.2 Marketing Requirements/Expectations
6.17.3 Manufacturing Requirements/Expectations
6.17.4 New Raw Materials, Bases, Forms
6.17.5 Final Packaging
6.17.6 Stability
6.17.7 Personal Trial
6.17.8 Preliminary Stability
6.17.9 Final Formulation
6.17.10 Final Stability

Part 6.18

Oral Care: Formulating Products and Practices for Health and Beauty


Caren M. Barnes
Professor Coordinator of Clinical Research
University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry


Chi Shing Wong
Member, Product Development Group
Colgate-Palmolive Global Toothbrush Division

James G Masters, Ph.D.
Director in the Research and Development Division
Colgate-Palmolive Company

Shira Pilch, Ph.D.
Associate Director: Research and Development Division
Colgate-Palmolive Company

Michael Prencipe, Ph.D.
Director in the Research and Development Division
Colgate-Palmolive Company

Table of Contents:

6.18 Introduction

A. Important Issues in Oral Health
B. Importance of Aesthetics in Dentistry
C. Halitosis (oral malodor)
D. Oral Issues Related to Aging
1. Demographics of Aging: What to Expect
2. Oral Health and the Aging

6.18.1 Personal Oral Care

A. Dentifrices
1. Regulation (Therapeutic vs. Cosmetic Benefits)
2. Stain Removal
3. Abrasion
4. Ingredients
5. Therapeutic Ingredients
6. Non-Therapeutic Ingredients for Cosmetic Benefits
B. Mouthrinses
1. Ingredients
2. Manufacture
3. Packaging

6.18.2 Oral Hygiene Aids

A. Manual Toothbrush
1. Historical Perspective
2. Importance of Toothbrush Features
B. Powered Toothbrush
1. Historical Perspective
2. Types of Powered Toothbrushes
a. Range of Products
b. Action
c. Sonic and Ultrasonic
d. Additional Features
C. Interdental Cleaning Devices
1. Importance of Interdental Cleaning
2. Dental FlossThe Shortcomings
3. Interdental Brushes
4. Additional Interdental Cleaning Aids


Part 7. Sensory Characterization

Part 7.1

Sensory Signals The applied science of sensory perception and its value


Lee Stapleton
Program Director
Sensory Spectrum

Table of Contents:

7.1.1 Overview
7.1.2 History of sensory evaluation
7.1.3 Defining sensory properties
7.1.4 Rationale for generating technical-based language for objective product description
7.1.5 Introduction to descriptive analysis methodology
7.1.6 The spectrum descriptive analysis method: philosophy and principles
7.1.7 Fundamentals for developing lexicons
7.1.8 Process for developing personal care product lexicons
7.1.9 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for lotions and creams
7.1.10 Sample protocol for skin preparation and maintenance during testing
7.1.11 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for evaluation of hair tresses
7.1.12 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for evaluation of lather and skinfeel of bar soaps
7.1.13 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for evaluation of appearance and skinfeel of antiperspirants using inner arm site
7.1.14 Sample lexicon and testing protocol for evaluation of appearance and skinfeel of facial foundation using half-face
7.1.15 Applications of descriptive analysis for personal care and cosmetics

Part 8. Delivery Systems

Part 8.1

Delivery Systems for Cosmetics and Personal Care


Nripen S. Sharma Ph.D., Salvona LLC ,
Bryan Grossman
Sam Shefer Ph.D.

Table of Contents:

8.1.1 Background and Motivation

8.1.2 Classification of Delivery Systems

a. Powder Technologies
b. Improving Performance - MultiSal
c. Gel- based encapsulation systems
d. Porous polymeric systems

8.1.3 Lipid-B based Encapsulation Systems

a. Liposomes
b. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
c. Lipid-based sub-micron technology - SalSphere

8.1.4 Sugar-Bbased Technologies

a. Cyclodextrins

8.1.5 Other Delivery Systems

a. HydroSal Technology
b. Cellesence
c. Fermenich
d. Thermarome
e. Givaudan
f. Evoglass
1. Retinol
2. Menthol
3. Resveratrol
4. Benzoyl Peroxide
5. Salicylic Acid
6. Fragrances

8.1.6 Technical Challenges in Delivery Systems


Part 9 Nutracosmetics

Part 9.1

The Use of Nutraceutical Ingredients in the Cosmetic Industry

Qi Jia
Chief Science Officer
Unigen Inc. 3005 First Avenue, Seattle, WA 98121

Table of Contents:

9.1.1 Introduction
9.1.2 Nutraceutical ingredients that are suitable for cosmetic usage

9.1.3 Characterization of nutracosmetic ingredients based on biological function

a. Anti-oxidation
b. Anti-inflammation
c. Immune protection
d. Skin hydration
e. Supporting healthy skin-cell renewal and rebuilding dermal structure
f. Anti-skin aging

9.1.4 Bioavailability and clinical considerations


Part 9.2

Multi-Functional Botanicals for Nutricosmetics Applications

Anurag Pande, Ph.D.
Dr. Muhammed Majeed

Table of Contents:

9.2.1 Introduction (aAbout the Nutricosmetics in general)
9.2.2 Global market
9.2.3 Ayurveda and Botanicals

9.2.4 Multifunctional Nutricosmetics

a. Amla - Saberry (Indian Gooseberry)
b. Green Tea polyphenols (Green Tea)
c. Ellagic acid (Pomegranate)
d. Curcumin C3 Reduct (Turmeric)
e. Cococin (Coconut Water)


Part 10 NanoCosmetics

Part 10.1



Allison Kutner,
Joy Makdisi,
Adam Friedman, MD, FAAD
Division of Dermatology
Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Table of Contents:

Nanotechnology and anti-aging

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 Nanomaterials for skin delivery: nanoemulsions, liposomes, and nanoparticles

a. Nanoemulsions
b. Liposomes
c. Nanoparticles

10.1.3 Nanotechnology and photoprotection
10.1.4 Nanotechnology and hair care
10.1.5 Nanotechnology and makeup/coverup
10.1.6 Nanotechnology and emollient therapy
10.1.7 Nanotechnology and anti-aging


Part 11 Testing

Part 11.1

Methods to Assess Skin Barrier Integrity:
Effects of Cleansing Products


Guojin Lu,
Roger L. McMullen,
David J. Moore
Ashland Specialty Ingredients

Table of Contents:

11.1.1 Introduction

a. Skin structure and functions
b. Cleansing and commonly used surfactant systems in cleansing formulations
c. Skin damages by cleansing products

11.1.2 Physicochemical interactions between surfactants and skin

a. SC protein binding, denaturation, dissolution, and SC swelling
b. SC lipid extraction and selective removal
c. Disruption of SC lipid organization/structure and change of lipid composition
d. pH effect

11.1.3 Approaches and methods to assess the effects of cleansing stresses on skin barrier integrity

a. Surfactant-skin/SC interactions
1. Sensory testing and substantiating instrumental methods
2. Microscope, video microscopy for skin surface topography
3. Skin penetration/permeability by Franz cell and impedance measurements
4. Mechanical behavior of skin
5. Bioengineering methods to measure water flux and water content of skin
b. Surfactant-lipid interactions
1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
2. Vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR)
3. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)
c. Skin-protein interactions
1. BSA denaturation test
2. Zein solubility assay
3. NMF level measurements


Part 11.2

Imaging Techniques and Analysis for Quantification of Skin Appearance


Roger L. McMullen, Ph.D.
Principal Scientist
Materials Science Department
Ashland, Inc.
Bridgewater, NJ 08807

Adjunct Professor
School of Natural Sciences
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Teaneck, NJ 07666

Table of Contents:

11.2.1 Skin Surface Imaging and Analysis

a. Polarized Light Photography
b. Imaging Techniques with Skin Replicas
c. Fringe Projection Methods to Measure Skin Topography
d. Pore Measurements
e. Skin Thermography
f. Ultraviolet (UV) Reflectance Photography
g. Fluorescence Reflectance Photography
h. Multi-Spectral Multi-Modal Facial Imaging
i. Photographic Analysis of Lips
j. Hyperpigmentation Measurements of Skin
k. Imaging of Cellulite

11.2.2 In Vivo Imaging of Internal Features of Skin

a. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy
b. Ultrasonography

11.2.3 High-Resolution Microscopic Techniques for Imaging Skin

a. Reflected Light Microscopy (Epi-illumination)
b. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
c. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
d. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

11.2.4 Image Analysis to Quantify Histological and Immunofluorescent Staining of Ex Vivo and In Vitro Skin Cell Cultures

a. Measuring Pigmentation of Histological Skin Sections
b. Immunofluorescence Staining Quantification in Fibroblast Cell Cultures
c. Image Analysis of Triple-Stained Normal Human Keratinocytes (NHKs)
d. Measurement of Collagen IV Expression at the Dermal-Epidermal Junction


Part 11.3

Biophysical Measurement and Evaluation of Skin Elasticity and Topography


Stefanie Luebberding, PhD
Nils Krueger, PhD

IRosenpark Research
Wilhelminenstrae 13
64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

Table of Contents:

11.3.1 Skin Topography

a. Quantitative assessment of skin topography
b. Replica-based methods
c. 3D Photogrammetry
d. Fringe Projection Method

11.3.2 Skin Elasticity

a. Quantitative assessment of skin elasticity
b. Tensile Testing
c. Torsion Technique
d. Impact Technique
e. Elevation Technique


Part 11.4
A Survey of Test Methodology Used in Evaluating the Damage, Protection and Repair of Hair

Ray Rigoletto Sr. Manager,
Global R&D Applications Care Specialties: Hair Care; Home Care
Ashland, Inc.
1005 US Hwy No. 202/206 Bridgewater, NJ 08807

Tim Gillece
Ashland, Inc.

Table of Contents:

11.4.1 Introduction
11.4.2 The nature of hair damage

11.4.3 Simulating damaging hair treatments for studying the alleviating effects of protective and repair ingredients

a. Treatment schedules
1. Thermal Exposure
2. UV Exposure
3. Color wash-fastness techniques
4. Mechanical and thermal-mechanical damage

11.4.4 Instrumentation and experimental methods for studying damage and protection of hair

a. Physical-Chemical
1. Differential Scanning Calorimetry
2. Surface Tension, Wetting, and Contact Angle Analysis
3. Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS)
4. Streaming Potential
5. Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
6. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
7. Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC)

b. Spectroscopic
1. Infrared Imaging (IR imaging)
2. Spectrofluorimetry

c. Microscopy
1. Optical Microscopy
2. Microfluorimetry
3. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
4. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

d. Mechanical properties
1. Tensile testing
2. Impact Loading
3. Flexabrasion
4. Fatigue analysis
5. Torsional Strain
6. Texture analysis
7. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

e. Image analysis

f. Infrared Thermography (IRT)

11.4.5 Color protection

a. Color wash-fastness of oxidative hair color from shampoo stripping
1. Colorimetry
2. Image analysis of digital photographs

b. Color Protection from UV-Induced Fading

11.4.6 Repair Techniques

a. Protein Hydrolyzates
b. Cuticle Decementation and its Repair
c. Repair of Split Ends
d. Repair of the Surface Lipid Layer
e. Strategies for Permanent Mending of Hair

11.4.7 Tests to study whole hair attributes from damaging effects and improvements with cosmetic treatments

a. Panel testing
b. Fiber fragmentation techniques
c. Mechanical combing
d. Salon Testing


Part 11.5

Clinical Testing of Cosmetics and Skin Care Products: Methods and Instrumentations


Iqbal Sadiq, M.Phil.
Director Research and Technology
Product Investigations, Inc.
151 East Tenth Ave., Conshohocken, PA 19428, USA

Table of Contents:

11.5.1 Introduction
11.5.2 Cosmetics and Skin Care products for human use
11.5.3 Skin Strata

11.5.4 Bio-Instrumentation

a. General
b. Environmental Chamber

11.5.5 Skin Hydration

a. Skicon
b. Novameter
c. Corneometer
d. Sorption-Desorption Test
e. Moisture Accumulation Test

11.5.6 Trans-Epidermal Water Loss

a. Evaporimeter
b. Dermalab

11.5.7 Skin Blood Flow, Color, Erythema

a. Laser Doppler Flowmetry
b. Colorimetry
c. Reflectance Spectrophotometry

11.5.8 Imaging Techniques

a. Digital Photography
1. Face Photography
2. Polarized Light Photography
3. Fluorescence Photography
4. Ultraviolet Light Photography

b. Ultrasound
c. Videomicroscopy
d. Confocal Microscopy
e. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

11.5.9 Skin Topography

a. Replica of Skin
b. Phase Shift Fringe Projection Device
c. Calculation of Roughness Values
d. Surface Area Calculation

11.5.10 Viscoelastic Measurements

a. Suction Device
b. Ballistometry
c. Torsional Ballistometry

11.5.11 Some Ex Vivo Techniques

a. Desquammation Measurement
b. Cyanoacrylate Surface Biopsy
c. Sebum Collection Assay

11.5.12 Application of Bio-Instrumentation: Some Examples


Part 11.6

Nanomaterials Characterization


Simon Allen, Intertek MSG, D125 The Wilton Centre, Wilton, Redcar, United Kingdom, TS10 4RF
Christian Gimenez, Intertek Chalon, Espaces Entreprises, 12 Rue Alfred Kastler, Fragnes, France 71530
Peter DeSanto Jr., Intertek Allentown, 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA, USA 18195
Scott Hanton, Intertek Allentown
Todd McEvoy, Intertek Allentown
John Zielinski, Intertek Allentown

Table of Contents:


11.6.1 Particle Size, Distribution, and Shape

a. Inorganic Particles
b. Liposoluble Organic Soluble Nanomaterials and Their Delivery Systems
c. Nanomaterial Legislation in Cosmetics
d. Nanomaterials Characterization
1. Particle Size, Distribution, and Shape
1.1 Electron Microscopy Techniques: TEM and SEM
1.2 Probe-based techniques: STM and AFM
1.3 Dynamic Light Scattering
1.4 High-resolution particle sedimentation

11.6.2 Surface Chemistry

a. Electron Spectroscopy
b. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)
c. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS)
d. Surface Mass Spectrometry
1. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS)
2. Static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS)

11.6.3 Surface Area and Porosity

a. BET Surface Area
b. Porosity
c. Sample Preparation

11.6.4 Physical Properties

a. Phase Identification using XRD
b. Phase Composition using XRD
c. Crystallite size using XRD

11.6.5 Bulk Metals Analysis

a. X-ray Fluorescencebulk and trace metals analysis
b. Trace and ultra-trace metals analysis using ICP-OES and ICP-MS


Part 11.7

In Vitro Assays to Measure Epigenetic Mechanisms Involved with Controlling Gene Expression


Robert Holtz, President
BioInnovation Laboratories
7220 W. Jefferson Ave., Ste 112Lakewood, CO 80235 USA

Table of Contents:

11.7.1 Introduction

11.7.2 DNA Modifications: DNA Methylation

a. DNA Methylation: Methyltransferases
b. DNA Methylation: Pharmacological Agents

11.7.3 Histone Modifications

a. Post-Translational Histone Modification Assays
b. Histone-Modifying Enzyme Assays
c. Pharmacological Agents That Impact Histone Modification


Part 12 Sustainability and Eco-Responsibility

Part 12.0 A Global Approach for the Cosmetic and Personal Care Industry

Editor's Overview
Alban Muller (President, Alban Muller Group)

Part 12.1 Defining Sustainability and how it changes the innovation process


Jamie Pero Parker (Innovation Manager, RTI International) and
Phil Watson (Technology Commercialization Manager, RTI International)

12.1.1 Sustainabilitya critical business issue

12.1.2 Innovation is a critical but challenging component of any sustainability strategy

a. The concept of open innovation (OI)
b. Open innovation and sustainability are synergistic
c. Transparency
d. Collaboration

12.1.3 Integration of sustainability principles into innovation practices is evolutionary

a. Six key traits of sustainable companies
b. Few companies explicitly recognize and exploit open innovation as a tool to help them on this sustainability pathway
c. Companies practice open innovation for sustainability adopt a more complete model of open innovation
d. Practical lessons can be learned from companies that have recognized the synergies between sustainability and OI


Part 12.2

A Botanist's view of Sustainability: Use or Abuse in the Personal Care Industry?


Michael J. Balick (Vice President of Botanical Sciences, Director of the Institute of Economic Botany, New York Botanical Gardens)

12.2.1 Introduction

12.2.2 What happens once you find a species of interest?

1. Accurate identification of botanicals
2. Understanding why the plant is used in the product, and what part or form will give the best result to the consumer
3. Truthful representation of the local uses of the plant in marketing efforts
4. Making sure the environment is not degraded as a result of harvesting botanicals
5. Ensuring that local communities are not negatively impacted by the harvest of the plant
6. Under the spirit and intent of the United Nationssponsored Convention on Biodiversity, compensation to groups and source countries where the materials and ideas were obtained

12.2.3 Sustainable production of wild-harvested products


Part 12.3
The Herboretum Network for promoting local cultures and biodiversity


Genevive Bridenne (CIO, Alban Muller Group)

12.3.1 Introduction

12.3.2 The Herboretum, a true open-air plant laboratory dedicated to plants used in beauty, health, and well-being

a. An area of reflection, a scientific and natural approach
b. An area of protection, a long-term commitment to the protection of plant resources

12.3.3 The Herboretum organizes themed visits of four different kinds: school groups, the general public, professionals, and organizations

12.3.4 The Herboretum Network, a unique interface between the phytocosmetic industry and biodiversity


Part 12.4

The advantages and potential contribution of local cultures for carbon footprint reduction


Jean-Marc Seigneuret (Technical Director, Alban Muller Group)

12.4.1 Introduction

12.4.2 The use of plants in cosmetics

12.4.3 Plant origin

a. Name and identification
b. Wild plants
c. Cultivated plants
d. Good agricultural practices

12.4.5 Plant breeding

a. Mass selection
b. Cross-breeding

12.4.6 Farming method

a. Conventional farming (sustainable farming)
b. Organic farming

12.4.7 Initial post-harvest processing

a. The fresh plant
b. Dry plants
c. Storage


Part 12.5

Cosmetic ingredients from plant cell cultures: A new eco-sustainable approach


Roberto Dal Toso (R&D Manager IRB SpA)

12.5.1 Introduction
12.5.2 Traditional methods of botanical sourcing
12.5.3 Advantages of plant cell cultures: the new alternative
12.5.4 Sustainability of the biotechnological approach
12.5.5 Phenylpropanoids: structure, metabolism, and functions in plants
12.5.6 Standardization, Safety, and New Possibilities
12.5.7 Bioactive properties of PP for cosmetic applications


Part 12.6
Eco-responsibility applied to plant extraction


Alban Muller (President, Alban Muller Group)

12.6.1 Sourcing the plant raw material: Cultivation is key

12.6.2 Transforming the plant into a "drug" to become a cosmetic extract raw material

12.6.3 Extraction

a. The traditional extractions
b. The separation steps
c. The concentration steps
d. The eco-responsible steps around extraction
e. After extraction and concentration: Drying
f. Control steps

12.6.4 An eco-responsible extract

12.6.5 Certification or not?
12.6.6 The GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms) parameter

12.6.7 Eco-responsibility applied to formulation

a. Oily phase
1. Oils
2. Vegetable oil and vegetable
3. Oil esters
4. Antioxidants
b. Water phase

Part 12.7

The industrial frame: Concrete, green solutions for production and waste management


Alban Muller (President, Alban Muller Group)

12.7.1 An example of an alternative, eco-friendly process for plant extraction: Zeodration, a unique eco-responsible solution to dry plant extracts

a. The principle
b. Ecological advantages

12.7.2 Water and biodiversity gardens
An original innovation: Restoring wetlands in industrial areas

a. The project's origins
b. Resources implemented
c. The return of animal biodiversity
c. A sensory environment, conducive to awareness

Part 13 Cosmetic Manufacturing

Part 13.0

Manufacture of Cosmetics Section Overview
Meyer R. Rosen

Part 13.1

Cosmetic Manufacturing Processes

Editor: Bruce Victor


Donald S. Buell Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
Rose Khosravani Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
Doug J. Melenkevitz Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
Bruce L. Victor Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
David P. Yacko Este Lauder Companies, Inc.
Meyer R. Rosen Interactive Consulting, Inc.

Table of Contents:

13.1 Introduction

13.1.2 Unit Operations

a. Mixing
1. Quality of Mixing
2. Mixing Rheology
3. Heat Transfer
4. Types of Reactors and Their Use in Cosmetics
5. Emulsion Processing EquipmentHeat Transfer Wet SystemsSingle Phase (Miscible) Systems

a. Flow Patterns: Fluids with Low or Medium Viscosity (< 5,000 centipoise)
b. Impellers for Liquids of Low and Medium Viscosity
c. Power Consumption
d. Pumping Capacity and Velocity Head
e. Mixing Time
f. Influence of Vessel Shape
g. Flow Patterns: Fluids of High Viscosity
h. Impeller Types and Mixers for High-Viscosity Fluids Wet Systems - Multiphase Systems

a. The Emulsification Process
b. Orientation of Phases
c. Addition of Surfactant
d. Emulsion Temperature
e. Emulsion Processing Equipment - Mixing
f. High-Shear Mixers and Dispersion Equipment
g. Batch Homogenizers
h. Continuous High-Pressure Homogenizers and Mixers
i. Processing of Water in Silicone Emulsions
j. Liposome Production Wet Systems Liquid Solid Systems

a. Suspension of Solids
b. Milling Equipment
c. Colloid Mills
d. Ball Mills
e. Three-Roll Mills

13.1.4 Filling

a. Filling Parameters
b. Filling Machines
c. Filling Low-Viscosity Products (Lotions, Toners, Liquid Makeups)
d. Filling High-Viscosity Products (Creams, Mascaras, Masks)
e. FillingTraditional Lotion Products
f. Filling Shear-Sensitive Products
g. Filling Shampoos, Conditioners, CleansersProducts That Aerate
h. Packaging Lines
i. Warm and Hot Fills Creams and Dispersions
j. Warm and Hot Fills Godet Products
k. Warm and Hot FillsLipsticks, Lip Balms, Suppositories
l. Antiperspirants and Deodorants

13.1.5 Scale-Up

a. Agitation
b. High-Shear Mixing
c. Heat Transfer
d. Mass Transfer

13.1.6 Dry Systems

a. Blending Equipment
b. Shearing Equipment
c. Alternatives to the Hammer Mill
d. Batch Color Correction
e. Powder Grinds for Creams and Lotions BatchesDry Mix
f. Loose Powders
g. Filling Loose Powders
h. Filling Pressed Powders
i. Powder Scale-UpBatch Wet Continuous Process

a. Emulsion Products Requiring Cooling
b. Emulsion Hair Conditioners
c. Hair Gels
d. Scale-Up of Continuous Systems
e. Production Design Considerations Dry Continuous Processing

Bulk Powder Storage


Part 13.2

Cold-Process Emulsification Producing Sub-Micron Dispersions:
Formulation and Aesthetic Enhancement of Cosmetic and OTC Products


Michael Ross
James Wilmott
Leading Edge Innovations, LLC
50 Tannery Road, Suite #5
Branchburg, New Jersey 08876

Table of Contents:

13.2.1 Contemporary Cosmetics

a. The Future
b. Properties of Emulsions
c. Issues with Emulsions

13.2.2 Factors Driving the Search for Alternate Approaches

a. Textural Diversity
b. Enhanced Performance
c. Marketplace Confusion
d. Regulatory
e. Resource Availability and Sustainability

13.2.4 Sub-Micron Micelles

a. Benefits of Being Smaller

13.2.5 Methods of Producing Sub-Micron Micelles

13.2.6 Formulating with Sub-Micron Micelles

13.2.7 Manufacturing Benefits

a. Protection of Key Materials
b. Consistency & Reproducibility
c. Reduced Manufacturing Cost
d. Global Consistency

13.2.8 Consumer Benefits

a. Enhanced Product Efficacy
b. Unique Aesthetic Experiences
c. Consistency and Reproducibility
e. Safety
f. Environmental



Part 13.3

Intelligent Selection and Manufacture of Natural Extracts


Satish Nayak, PhD
Kemin Industries,
2100 Maury Street, Des Moines, Iowa 50317, USA.

Table of Contents:

13.3.1 Introduction

13.3.2 Sources of Natural Ingredients

a. Plants
b. Microorganisms
c. Algae

13.2.3 Extraction Technologies

a. Solvent Extraction
b. Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE)
c. Factors affecting efficiency of MAE
d. Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (UAE)
e. Factors Affecting Efficiency of UAE
f. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SCFE)
g. Factors affecting efficiency of SCFE


Part 14 Packaging

Part 14.1

Emerging Strategies for Sustainable Packaging:
Balancing Materials, Design, and Appearance


Wylie Royce
Royce Associates

Table of Contents:

14.1.1 Plastic: Material of choice for a generation

14.1.2 Material Options

a. Bio-based resins
b. Bio-based PET
c. Bio-based HDPE
d. Basf eco-flex and ecovio
e. Biodegradable additives
f. Bio-resin design limitations
g. Bio advantages
h. Bio limitations summarized
i. Conventional resins
j. Advantages
k. Limitations

14.1.3 design strategies

a. Choosing the material
b. Bio-resins
c. Bio-resin alloys
d. Conventional resins

14.1.4 sustainability: what makes a package sustainable (and it's not just the package anymore)

a. Measuring sustainable claims
b. The big picture
c. State your message


Part 14.2
Aerosol Containment and Delivery


Harry Wu
Aerosol Connection LLC.

Table of Contents

14.2.1 History
14.2.2 Definition
14.2.3 Principle of Aerosol Technology

14.2.4 Aerosol Systems

a. Homogenous systems
b. Heterogeneous systems
c. Barrier pack systems

14.2.5 Components of an Aerosol Container

a. Three-Piece Tin-Plated Steel
b. Two-Piece Tin-Plated Steel
c. Aluminum
d. Glass
e. Polyethylene Terephthalate

14.2.6 Valve

a. The Male Valve
b. Female Valve

14.2.7 Types of Valves

a. Standard valves
b. Powder valves
c. Spray valves
d. Vapor tap valves
e. Metering valves
f. Crimping

14.2.8 The Actuator

14.2.9 Propellants

a. Hydrocarbon Propellants
b. Dimethyl Ether
c. Hydrofluorocarbons
d. Compressed Gases

14.2.10 Filling

a. Cold Filling
b. Under-the-Cup Filling
c. Pressure Filling
d. Hot Water Bath Testing
e. Headspace

14.2.11 Operation

14.2.12 Alternate Systems

a. Bag-On-Valve
b. Bag-in-a-Can System
c. Sepro Can System
d. Lechner System
e. Piston System
f. Atmos Dispensing System
g. Pump-Activated Systems
1. Dry Spray Dispenser
2. F-Z Finger Pump Foamer
3. Co-Dispensing Systems

14.2.13 Formulating Aerosol Products: The Voice of Experience

a. Aerosol Containers
b. Aerosol Valves
c. The Actuators

14.2.14 Physical & Chemical Properties of the Product

a. Viscosity
b. Suspension System
c. Solvent System
d. pH Value
e. Foam Products
f. Sprayable Products

14.2.15 Stability Testing


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