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Concrete Corrosion and Concrete Protection

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Product Code: 9780820601113


ISBN-13/EAN: 9780820601113
ISBN: 082060111X
Author: Imre Biczok
Chemical Publishing
Book - Hardback
Pub Date: Jul 28, 1967
548 pages

Contents -
Preface to the English edition -
Preface to the German edition -
Introduction -

The basic materials of concrete -
A) Cements and their resistance to corrosion  -
1. The composition of cements -
2. The hydration of cement -
a) The process of hydration -
b) Freshly hardened cement stone -
c) The free calcium hydroxide -
d) Aluminates, tricalcium aluminate -
3. The resistance of various cements to chemical attack -
a) Portland cement (silicate cement) -
(i) The effect of fineness -
(ii) The resistance of Portland cement -
(iii) Characteristic moduli -
b) Portland blast-furnace cements (slag cement) -
(i) Mineralogical composition of clinker -
(ii) Composition of the granulated blast-furnace slag -
(iii) Blast-furnace slag in cement -
(iv) Resistance of blast-furnace cements to aggressive effects -
c) Trass cement -
(i) Trass -
Iii) Setting of trass cement -
(iii) Resistance of trass cement -
d) Fly-ash cement -
e) Ferrari cement -
f) Aluminous cement -
(i) The chemical resistance of aluminous cements -
g) Supersulphated cement -
h) Anhydrite cement -
i) Anhydrite aluminous cement -
j) Special cements and cementing materials -
(i) Watertight cement -
(ii) Hydrophobic cement -
(iii) White cement -
(iv) Expanding cements -
(v) Clay Portland cement  -
(vi) Rubber cement -
B) Aggregates -
1. Sand -
2. Gravel -
3. Crushed stone -
4. Blast-furnace slag -
5. Coal slag -
6. Other aggregates -
7. Conclusion -
C) Mixing water -

Groundwater -
A) Engineering hydrology -
1. Determination of the highest groundwater table -
2. Determination of variations in the highest groundwater table -
3. Groundwater flow -
4. Hydrochemical groundwater maps  -
B) Groundwater sampling -
C) Soil sampling  -
D) The reliability of analytical data of groundwater and soil samples -
E) Investigation of groundwater and soil properties -

The corrosion and protection of concrete -
A) The investigation of concrete corrosion -
1. Corrosion research
a) The history of corrosion research -
(i) Experiments with sea water -
(ii) Studies of cement after H. Kuhl (1951) -
(iii) Experiments with swamp water -
(iv) Experiments in industrial wastes -
b) Long-time studies in America -
(i) Experiments of D. G. Miller and P. W. Manson-
(ii) Experiments of the Portland Cement Association, Chicago -
(iii) Experiments in Hungary -
c) Corrosion studies under natural conditions -
2. Rapid methods of corrosion testing -
a) Rapid testing by increasing the reactive surface -
(i) Rapid tests within one day on ground cement -
(ii) Rapid testing by comminuting the cement stone -
(iii) The Anstett test  -
(iv) Rapid testing with small specimens -
(v) Experiments by V. V. Kind  -
(vi) Tests by A. Prot  -
(vii) Heidelberg rapid-testing method after A. Koch and H. Steinegger  -
(viii) The Soviet method -
(ix) Methods according to GOST and CSN -
(x) Testing of Hungarian cements -
(xi) The ASTM testing method -
b) Rapid tests by increasing the crystal pressure -
c) Rapid tests by percolating the attacking solution -
d) Rapid tests by increasing the concentration of the solution -
e) Rapid tests by raising the temperature of the attacking solution -
f) General remarks -
3. The performance of corrosion tests -
a) Aggressive solutions used for testing -
b) Storage of test specimens in the aggressive solution -
c) Determination of the degree of corrosion -
d) The rate of corrosion -
4. Summary -
B) General aspects of corrosion -
C) Leaching corrosion of concrete due to soft water -
1. The hardness of water and its effect -
2. The effects of soft river water and groundwater in motion -
3. Effects of soft water seeping under pressure -
4. The effect of warm soft water -
5. The effect of cement type -
6. The effect of concrete density -
7. Effect of the concrete surface  -
8. Dimensions and age of concrete -
9. Protective measures against the leaching action of water -
D) Concrete corrosion due to attacking compounds -
1. Aggressive effect of sulphate ions -
a) Formation of sulphates in nature -
b) Formation of sulphates due to biological action -
c) Formation of sulphates as a result of industrial pollution -
d) Corrosion caused by sulphate ions -
(i) Effect of sulphate solutions on the components of clinker -
(ii) Development of corrosion caused by different sulphate solutions -
(iii) Conclusions of V. V. Kind -
e) Aspects of resistance to aggression and protection against corrosion -
(i) The critical sulphate content -
f) Protection against sulphate action. Specifications of various countries -
(i) Directives in Britain -
(ii) US specifications -
(iii) The German standard specification DIN 4030 -
(iv) The Czechoslovak specifications -
(v) The standard specifications of the Soviet Union (GOST) -
(vi) Hungarian specifications -
g) Corrosion problems of mass concrete structures (dams) -
(i) External zone exposed to water level fluctuations 214
(ii) External zone exposed to air -
(iii) External zone of the foundation -
(iv) The core -
(v) Protective paints for concrete structures -
2. The aggressive effect of the magnesium ions -
a) Corrosion due to magnesium -
b) Protection against destruction by magnesium salts -
3. The aggressive effect of ammonium ions -
4. The aggressive effect of chlorine ions -
a) The effects of chlorides -
b) Use in industry -
c) Summary-
5. The corrosive effect of the hydrogen ion (acidic corrosion) -
a) Occurrence and origin of acidic groundwater -
b) Corrosion by industrial acids -
c) Inorganic and organic acids -
(i) Inorganic acids -
(ii) Organic acids -
d) Phenols and their homologous compounds -
e) Alcohols -
f) Aldehydes -
g) Critical acidity. Protective measures -
h) Peat and marsh soils -
i) The effect of acid gases and vapours and other gases -
6. Corrosion due to carbonic acid -
a) Carbonic acid in soils and in groundwater -
b) The occurrence of carbonic acid -
c) Corrosion due to carbonic acid (corrosion of type II) -
d) The quantitative determination of aggressive carbonic acid -
e) Protective measures against corrosion by carbon dioxide -
7. The aggressive effect of hydroxyl ions (types II and III). Basic corrosion -
a) The occurrence of bases in groundwater -
b) Corrosion due to bases -
c) Protective measures against the action of bases -
8. Corrosion due to salts -
a) Inorganic salts -
(i) Sulphates -
(ii) Chlorides -
(iii) Nitrates -
(iv) Sulphides -
(v) Carbonates -
(vi) Fluorides, silicates, chromates -
(vii) Other salts -
b) Organic salts -
(i) Vegetable and animal fats and oils -
(ii) Mineral oils and fats -
9. Corrosion due to industrial wastes -
10. Effects of concentrated acids and bases on soils -
a) The infiltration of sulphuric acid into clay soils -
b) The penetration of concentrated sulphuric acid into sand soil -
11. The corrosive effect of the soil -
12. The corrosion of brickwork -
13. Reinforced-concrete structures surrounded by slag -
14. Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete -
15. The corrosive effect of sea water -
a) The nature of corrosion by sea water -
b) The behavior of different cements in sea water -
c) Protection against the harmful effects of sea water -
16. The effect of live organisms on concrete -
17. Corrosion due to two or more aggressive ions -
E) Conclusions -

Factors increasing or reducing corrosion -
A) Corrosion of concrete due to flowing groundwater -
B) The corrosive effect of warm groundwater -
C) Corrosion due to fluctuations of the groundwater table  -
D) Corrosion in the range of evaporation -
E) Thin-walled concrete objects, concrete canals, piles etc -
1. Cases of corrosion -
2. Protective measures -
F) The effect of air oxidation -
G) Microbiological corrosion (caused by sulphur bacteria) -
1. Sulphate-forming bacteria -
2. Sulphate-reducing bacteria -
3. Attempt at bacterial protection of concrete -
4. Iron organisms -

Detailed discussion of protective measures against corrosive effects -
A) Passive protective measures -
1. Selection of the suitable concrete mix and method of placement -
a) Selection of a suitable cement type -
b) Correct cement dosage corresponding to the grain size distribution of the aggregate -
c) Selection of a suitable aggregate -
d) Selection of a suitable grain size distribution -
e) The quantity of mixing water -
f) The use of sealing and plastifying agents -
g) Compaction of concrete -
h) Protection and after-treatment of fresh concrete -
i) The finish of concrete surfaces and the correct sequence of operations -
j) Protection by increasing the dimensions of concrete structures -
k) Use of special concretes, mortars and glues -
l) Air-entraining concrete -
(ii) Asbestos concrete -
(iii) Lightweight concrete -
(iv) Coal slag concrete
(v) Acid-resisting concrete -
(vi) Acid-resisting mortars and glues -
2. Surface treatments -
a) Carbonation -
b) Protection with iron precipitate -
c) Impermeable cement mortar rendering -
d) Sprayed concrete -
e) Water glass coating -
(i) Water glass -
(ii) Mode of application -
f) Soap treatment -
g) Fluoride treatment -
h) The "Okrat" process -
i) Storing in appropriate solutions -
j) Steam-curing -
k) Paints on concrete -
(i) Paints on oil basis -
(ii) Paints on varnish basis -
(iii) Paints on lacquer basis -
(iv) Water·thinned- paints -
(v) Clear coatings -
(vi) Paints on bitumen- and tar basis -
1) Cereous coatings, paraffin, ceresine, Ozokerite and other similar waxy substances (paraffin group) -
m) Coatings of synthetic resins -
3. Other methods of protection -
a) Cementation, silicate treatment, sealing the pores with clay -
b) Impregnation with bitumen -
c) Acid-resistant ceramic tiles and natural stone slab linings on concrete -
d) Floor covers -
e) Timber -
f) Encasing concrete structures in the soil with clay -
g) Bentonite seals -
h) Crust concrete -
4. Perfect sealing (waterproofing) -
a) Black seals -
b) Metal plating -
c) Plastics -
d) Natural and synthetic rubber -
e) Cement concretes and mortars with synthetic additives -
B) Active protective measures -
1. Exclusion of aggressive water -
2. Neutralization of aggressive water by chemical and biological methods -
C) Repair of damaged concrete -
Conclusion -
Bibliography -
Index -

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