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Cement Manufacturer's Handbook



 
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Product Code: 9780820603681

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ISBN-13/EAN: 9780820603681
ISBN: 0820603686
Author: Kurt E. Peray
Chemical Publishing
Book - Paperback
Pub Date: Apr 7, 1979
408 pages 
Features
This unique handbook contains the most essential engineering formulas used in the cement manufacturing process. 
 
All formulas are presented in both English and metric systems of units. 

Examples are given to familiarize the reader with the usefulness of these formulas. 

The book can be used as a text manual for courses in cement technology, 
and as a reference for solving operating problems. 

The book is equally valuable for the manager supervisor, chemist, and operator as it is to the cement plant engineer. 

CONTENTS
Part I. Cement Chemistry

Chapter 1. 
QUALITY CONTROL FORMULAS 
1.01 Ignition Loss 
1.02 Silica Ratio 
1.03 Alumina¬∑Iron Ratio 
1.04 Lime Saturation Factor 
1.05 Hydraulic Ratio 
1.06 Percent liquid 
1.07 Burnability Index 
1.08 Burnability Factor 
1.09 Bogue Formulas for Clinker and Cement Constituents
1.10 Total Carbonates
1.11 Total Alkalies as Na20
1.12 Conversion of Raw Analysis to Loss Free Basis
1.13 Conversion of Kiln Dust Weight to Kiln Feed Weight
1.14 Calculation of Total Carbonates from Acid·Alkali Titration
1.15 Percent Calcination

Chapter 2.
KILN FEED MIX CALCULATIONS
2.01 CaC03 Required to Obtain a Given C3S in the Clinker
2.02 Two Component Mix Calculations 
2.03 Three Component Mix Calculations 
2.04 Four Component Mix Calculations 
2.05 Determination of Chemical Composition 

Chapter 3. 
KILN FEED SLURRY
3.01 Specific Gravity and Pulp Density of Slurries
3.02 Properties of Water
3.03 Mass of Slurry Required per Mass of Clinker
3.04 Slurry Feed Rate Required
3.05 Clinker Production for a Given Slurry Rate 
3.06 Clinker Production per Slurry Tank Unit 
3.07 Specific Gravity of Slurry 
3.08 Dry Solids per Unit Volume of Slurry

Chapter 4.
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
MATERIALS USED IN CEMENT MANUFACTURING 
4.01 Chemical Compounds
4.02 Bulk Densities of Common Materials 
4.03 Typical Coal Analysis 
4.04 Typical Fuel Oil Properties 
4.05 Typical Gaseous Fuel Properties 
4.06 Barometric Pressure at Different Altitudes 
4.07 Sieve Sizes 
4.08 Coefficients of Linear Expansion 
4.09 Properties of Air 
4.10 Particulate Concentration in Gases 
4.11 Selected International Atomic Weights 
4.12 Selected Minerals and Ores 
4.13 Classification of Minerals 
4.14 Chemical Formula and Molecular Weight of Common Minerals 

Chapter 5. 
FORMULA AND DATA USED IN COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS 
5.01 Thermochemical Reactions 
5.02 Combustion Constants 
5.03 Heat Value of Fuel 
5.04 Conversion from "Gross" to "Net" Heating Value 
5.05 Analysis of Coal 
5.06 Methods of Expressing Solid Fuel Analysis 
5.07 Conversion of Coal AnalYSis to Different Basis 
5.08 Typical Coal Ash Analysis 
5.09 Fuel Ignition Temperatures
5.10 Percent Coal Ash Absorbed in Clinker
5.11 Effect of Coal Ash on Clinker Composition
5.12 Determination of Theoretical Fuel Consumption

Chapter 6. 
pH: HYDROGEN-ION-CONCENTRATIONS
6.01 Definition of pH
6.02 Calculation of pH
6.03 Indicators
Part II Burning

Chapter 7. 
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF KILN PERFORMANCE
7.01 Technical Information on Kiln Equipment

Chapter 8. 
KILN PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY
(ENGLISH SYSTEM OF UNITS)
8.01 Amount of Feed Required to Produce One Ton of Clinker 
8.02 Dust Loss 
8.03 Potential Clinker Compounds and Clinker Factors 
8.04 Theoretical Heat Required to Produce One Ton of Clinker 
8.05 Percent of Infiltrated Air at Kiln Feed End 
8.06 Excess Air Present in the Kiln 
8.07 Combustion Air Required to Burn One Pound of Fuel 
8.08 Weight of Combustion Air per Minute Entering Kiln 
8.09 Air Infiltration at Hood 
8.10 Cooler Air Balance 
8.11 Products of Combustion (lb/ton) 
8.12 Weight of Gases from Slurry (lb/ton) 
8.13 Total Weight of Kiln Exit Gases 
8.14 Percent Moisture in Kiln Exit Gases 
8.15 Density of Kiln Exit Gas 
8.16 Volume of Moist Kiln Exit Gases 
8.17 Kiln Performance Factors 
8.18 Results of Kiln Performance Study 

Chapter 9. 
KILN PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY
(METRIC SYSTEM OF UNITS) 
9.01 Amount of Feed Required to Produce One Kilogram of Clinker 1
9.02 Dust Loss
9.03 Potential Clinker Compounds and Clinker Factors
9.04 Theoretical Heat Required to Produce One Kilogram Clinker 
9.05 Percent of Infiltrated Air at Kiln Feed End
9.06 Excess Air Present in the Kiln 
9.07 Combustion Air Required to Bum One Kilogram of Fuel
(Solid or Liquid) 
9.08 Weight of Combustion Air Required per Hour 
9.09 Air Infiltration at Firing Hood 
9.10 Cooler Air Balance
9.11 Products of Combustion 
9.12 Weight of Gases from the Feed 
9.13 Total Weight of Kiln Exit Gases 
9.14 Percent Moisture in Kiln Exit Gases
9.15 Density of Kiln Exit Gases 
9.16 Volume of Moist Kiln Exit Gas 
9.17 Kiln Performance Factors 
9.18 Results of Kiln Performance Study 

Chapter 10. 
HEAT BALANCE (ENGLISH SYSTEM OF UNITS)
10.01 Heat Input from Combustion of Fuel 
10.02 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Fuel
10.03 Heat Input from Organic Substance in Kiln Feed
10.04 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Kiln Feed 
10.05 Heat Input from Cooler Air Sensible Heat 
10.06 Heat Input from Primary Air Sensible Heat 
10.07 Heat Input from Infiltrated Air Sensible Heat 
10.08 Heat Required for Clinker Formation 
10.09 Heat Loss with Exit Gas 
10.10 Heat Loss Due to Moisture in Feed or Slurry 
10.11 Heat Losses Due to Dust in Exit Gases 
10.12 Heat Loss with Clinker at Cooler Discharge 
10.13 Heat Loss at Cooler Stack 
10.14 Radiation and Convection Losses on Kiln Shell 
10.15 Heat Loss Due to Calcination of Wasted Dust

Chapter 11. 
HEAT BALANCE (METRIC SYSTEM OF UNITS) 
11.01 Heat Input from the Combustion of Fuel 
11.02 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Fuel 
11.03 Heat Input from Organic Substance in Kiln Feed 
11.04 Heat Input from Sensible Heat in Kiln Feed 
11.05 Heat Input from Cooler Air Sensible Heat
11.06 Heat Input from Primary Air Sensible Heat 
11.07 Heat Input from Infiltrated Air Sensible Heat
11.08 Heat Required for Clinker Formation 
11.09 Heat Loss with Kiln Exit Gas 
11.10 Heat Loss Due to Moisture in Feed or Slurry 
11.11 Heat Losses Due to Dust in the Kiln Exit Gases 
11.12 Heat Loss with Clinker at Cooler Discharge 
11.13 Heat Loss at Cooler Stack 
11.14 Heat Losses by Radiation on Kiln Shell 
11.15 Heat Loss Due to Calcination of Wasted Kiln Dust 

Chapter 12. 
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF THREE KILN MODELS 

Chapter 13. 
SPECIFIC HEATS, HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS
AND COMPUTATIONS FOR NATURAL GAS FIRING
13.01 Mean Specific Heat of Clinker (Metric System) 
13.02 Mean Specific Heat of Raw Materials (Metric System) 
13.03 Mean Specific Heat of Exit Gas Components (Metric System) 
13.04 Mean SpeCific Heat of Fuels (Metric System) 
13.05 Mean Specific Heat of Water Vapor (Metric System) 
13.06 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Heat Loss on Kiln Shell (Metric
System)
13.07 Mean Specific Heat of Clinker (English System) 
13.08 Mean Specific Heat of Raw Materials (English System)
13.09 Mean Specific Heat of Exit Gas Components (English System)
13.10 Mean Specific Heat of Fuels (English System) 
13.11 Mean Specific Heat of Water Vapor (English System) 
13.12 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Heat Loss on Kiln Shell (English System)
13.13 Computations for Natural Gas Firing 

Chapter 14. 
USEFUL FORMULAS IN KILN DESIGN AND OPERATION 
14.01 Cooling of Kiln Exit Gases by Water
14.02 Kiln Feed Residence Time 
14.03 Kiln Slope Conversion 
14.04 Kiln Sulfur Balance 
14.05 The Standard Coal Factor, Combustion Air Requirements 
14.06 Cooler Performance 
14.07 Combustion Air Required for Natural Gas Firing 
14.08 Products of Combustion on Natural Gas Firing 
14.09 Percent Loading of the Kiln 
14.10 Cross-Sectional Loading of the Kiln 
14.11 Flame Propagation Speed 
14.12 Kiln Drive Horsepower 
14.13 Theoretical Exit Gas Composition, by Volume 
14.14 Conversion of Specific Heat Consumption into Annualized Costs 
14.15 Theoretical Flame Temperature 
14.16 The "True" CO2 Content in the Exit Gases 
14.17 Alkali Balance 
14.18 Kiln Speed Conversions 
14.19 Power Audit on Kiln Equipment 
14.20 Coating and Ring Formation 
14.21 Relationship Silica Ratio vs. Saturation Factor

Chapter 15. 
CHAIN SYSTEMS IN WET PROCESS KILNS
15.01 Chain Angle of Garland Hung Chains
15.02 Evaporation Rate (Wet Kilns) 
15.03 Total Heat Transfer Surface 
15.04 Effective Heat Transfer Volume for Evaporation 
15.05 Chain Zone to Kiln Length Ratio 
15.06 Length of Chain System 
15.07 Chain Density 
15.08 Heat Transfer Required in Chain System
15.09 Specific Chain System Performance Factors
15.10 Chain System Design for Wet Process Kilns
15.11 Kiln Chain Data-Round Links
15.12 Kiln Chain Data-Proof Coil (Oval Links)
15.13 Chain Shackle Data
15.14 Chain System Record Form

Chapter 16. 
KILN REFRACTORY
16.01 Refractory Shapes
16.02 Number of Bricks Required per Ring
16.03 Number of Bricks Required per Unit Kiln Length
16.04 Kiln Diameter Conversion Table

Part III. Grinding

Chapter 17. 
TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF GRINDING MILL
17.01 Technical Data of Grinding Circuit 

Chapter 18. 
GRINDING MILL INVESTIGATION (ENGLISH SYSTEM OF UNITS)
18.01 Mill Critical Speed
18.02 Percent of Critical Speed 
18.03 Ratio: Free Height to Mill Diameter 
18.04 Internal Volume of Mill 
18.05 Percent Loading of the Mill 
18.06 Bulk Volume of Ball Charge 
18.07 Weight of Ball Charge 
18.08 Weight of Feed in Mill 
18.09 Steel to Clinker Ratio 
18.10 Bond's Laboratory Work Index 
18.11 Power Required 
18.12 Mill Power 
18.13 True Specific Power Demand of Grinding Mill 
18.14 Mill Operating Efficiency 
18.15 Specific Surface Grinding Efficiency 
18.16 Mill Size Ratio 
18.17 Specific Mill Volume per Horsepower 
18.18 Separator Load 
18.19 Separator Efficiency 
18.20 Circulating Load 
18.21 Size of Grinding Balls Required 

Chapter 19. 
GRINDING MILL INVESTIGATION (METRIC SYSTEM OF UNITS)
19.01 Mill Critical Speed 
19.02 Percent of Critical Speed
19.03 Ratio: Free Height to Mill Diameter
19.04 Internal Volume of Mill 
19.05 Percent Loading of Mill 
19.06 Bulk Volume of Ball Charge 
19.07 Weight of Ball Charge 
19.08 Weight of Feed in Mill 
19.09 Steel to Clinker Ratio 
19.10 Bond's Laboratory Work Index 
19.11 Power Required 
19.12 Mill Power 
19.13 True Specific Power Demand of Grinding Mill 
19.14 Mill Operating Efficiency 
19.15 Specific Surface Grinding Efficiency 
19.16 Mill Size Ratio 219
19.17 Specific Mill Volume per Horsepower 
19.18 Separator Load 
19.19 Separator Efficiency 
19.20 Circulating Load 
19.21 Size of Grinding Balls Required

Chapter 20. 
USEFUL DATA FOR GRINDING MILL STUDY 
20.01 Work Index for Various Materials
20.02 Size Distribution for a New Ball Charge in Mill 
20.03 Grindability Factor 
20.04 Approximate 80 Percent Passing Size in Microns 
20.05 Screen Size Conversion to Micron Size 
20.06 Optimum S03 Content in Cement 
20.07 Calculations Related to Gypsum 
20.08 Perdent Gypsum Required for Desired S03 in Cement 
20.09 Cement Fineness 
20.10 Heats of Hydration 
20.11 Spray Cooling with Water

Chapter 21. 
GRINDING AIDS AND CEMENT FINENESS
21.01 Grinding Aid Solutions 
21.02 Fineness of Portland Cement by Turbidimeter (Wagner) 
21.03 Table of Logarithms for Turbidimeter Microammeter Reading
21.04 Particle Size Distribution

Part IV. Engineering Formulas

Chapter 22. 
STEAM ENGINEERING
22.01 Latent Heat of Vaporization
22.02 Saturated Steam Pressure
22.03 Enthalpy
22.04 Superheated Steam
22.05 Properties of Steam

Chapter 23. 
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
23.01 The Basic Formulas
23.02 Direct Current Circuits
23.03 Alternating Current
23.04 Useful Electrical Formulas

Chapter 24. 
FAN ENGINEERING
24.01 Fan Laws
24.02 Total Efficiency of a Fan
24.03 Static Efficiency of a Fan
24.04 Air Horsepower
24.05 Shaft Horsepower
24.06 Similar Fans
24.07 Fan Static Pressure

Chapter 25. 
FLUID FLOW 
25.01 Viscosity 
25.02 Kinematic Viscosity 
25.03 Specific Weight 
25.04 Specific Volume 
25.05 Specific Gravity 
25.06 Mean Fluid Velocity 
25.07 Barometric Pressure 
25.08 Atmospheric Pressure 
25.09 Gauge Pressure 
25.10 Hydraulic Radius 
25.11 Pressure Loss in Any Pipe 
25.12 Friction Factor 
25.13 Poiseuille's Law 
25.14 Reynolds Number 
25.15 Critical Velocity
25.16 Total Head 
25.17 Pressure Head 
25.18 Velocity Head 
25.19 Resistance Coefficient 
25.20 Bernoulli's Theorem 
25.21 Head Loss 
25.22 Flow Coefficient of Valves 
25.23 Flow Through a Valve 
25.24 Pressure Drop Through a Valve 
25.25 Flow Through Pipe 
25.26 Velocity vs. Cross-Sectional Area 
25.27 Potential Energy for Fluids 
25.28 Total Energy of a Liquid 
25.29 Power of a Liquid 
25.30 Flow Through Nozzles and Orifices 
25.31 Flow Coefficient 
25.32 Flow Through Pipes 
25.33 Flow Through Rectangular Weirs 
25.34 Flow Through Triangular Weirs 
25.35 Gas Flow Measurements 
25.36 Pilot Tube Measurements 
25.37 S-Tube Measurements 
25.38 One-Point Traverse 
25.39 Conversions of Flow Rates 
25.40 Flow Determination with Orifice Plate 
25.41 Ventury Meters 

Chapter 26. 
HEAT TRANSFER 
26.01 Heat Required for a Temperature Change 
26.02 Conduction 
26.03 Convection 
26.04 Radiation 
26.05 Nusselt Number 
26.06 Prandtl Number 
26.07 General Heat Transfer Equations 
26.08 Temperature Equivalents 
26.09 Temperature Conversion Table 

Chapter 27. 
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 
27.01 Gas Laws 
27.02 Gas Law Constant 
27.03 Avogadros Laws
27.04 Density of a Gas 
27.05 Standard Condition of a Gas 
27.06 Normal Density of a Gas 
27.07 Molecular Weight of Gases 
27.08 Density Changes of Gases 
27.09 Moles 
27.10 Volumes Changes of a Gas 
27.11 Weight Percent of Solutions 
27.12 Mole Fraction of a Solution 
27.13 Molality of a Solution 
27.14 Molarity of a Solution 
27.15 Percent of an Element Contained in a Compound 
27.16 Percent of a Compound Contained in a Substance 
27.17 Weight Problems 

Chapter 28. 
PHYSICS 
28.01 Newtons Law of Gravitation 
28.02 Acceleration - Force
28.03 Mass of a Body
28.04 Weight of a Body
28.05 Work Done
28.06 Power
28.07 Molecular Heat of Gases
28.08 Molecular Heat of Solids
28.09 Latent Heat of Fusion
28.10 Latent Heat of Evaporation
28.11 Heat of Formation and Reaction
28.12 Joule Equivalent
28.13 Temperature of a Mixture
28.14 Gas Mixtures
28.15 Gas Constant
28.16 Friction Coefficient
28.17 Moment of Force-Torque

Chapter 29. 
PSYCHROMETRY
29.01 Basic Psychrometric Equation
29.02 Wet Bulb Depression
29.03 Relative Humidity
29.04 Dew Point
29.05 Properties of Air and Water Vapor

Part V. Emission Control and Plant Equipment

Chapter 30. 
TEST FOR PARTICULATE EMISSIONS
30.01 Data Needed for Stack Testing
30.02 Summary of Results
30.03 Calculations

Chapter 31. 
USEFUL DATA FOR EMISSION CONTROL
31.01 Molecular Weights of Selected Gases
31.02 Conversion Factors for Emission Rates

Chapter 32. 
STORAGE AND TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT
32.01 Drum Dryers
32.02 Slurry Pumps
32.03 Bucket Elevators
32.04 Belt Conveyors
32.05 Screw Conveyors
32.06 Water Pumps
32.07 Storage Tanks
32.08 Drag Chains
32.09 Jaw and Gyratory Crushers
32.10 Stacks and Chimneys

Part VI. Appendix

Section A.
 MATHEMATICS
AI. Algebra
Al.OI Exponents
Al.02 Fractions
AI.03 Radicals
AI.04 Factoring
AI.OS Scientific Notations
AI.06 Logarithms
AI.07 Determinants
AI.08 Quadratic Equation
AI.09 Powers of Ten
Al.IO Powers and Roots
AI.11 Fractions and Decimal Equivalents
A2. Trigonometry
A2.01 Right Triangle
A2.02 Any Triangle
A3. Statistics
A3.01 Standard Deviation
A3.02 Variance
A3.03 Coefficient of Variation
A3.04 Relative Frequency
A3.05 Geometric Mean
A3.06 Least Squares
A3.07 Coefficient of Correlation
A4. Finances
A4.01 Compound Interest
A4.02 Total Annual Cash Flow
A4.03 After Tax Profit
A4.04 Straight Line Depreciation
A4.05 Double-Declining Balance Depreciation
A4.06 Sum-of-Years Digit Depreciation
A4.07 Sixth-Tenth Factor
A4.08 Value of Investment After Depreciation
A4.09 Return on Investment
A4.10 Simple Compound Interest
A4.11 Present Worth
A4.12 Equal Payment Series Compound Amount
A4.13 Compound Interest Factors
A4.14 Discounted Cash Flow Factors
A4.15 Deposit Calculation
AS. Safety Formulas
As.Ol Accident Frequency Rate
As.02 Severity Rate
As.03 Safety Performance
A6. Plane and SoUd Geometry
A6.01 Rectangles
A6.02 Parallelogram
A6.03 Triangle
A6.04 Circle
A6.05 Circular Sector
A6.06 Circular Segment
A6.07 Circular Ring
A6.08 Ellipse
A6.09 Parabola
A6.10 Polygon
A6.11 Trapezoid 
A6.12 Catenary 
A6.13 Cube 
A6.14 Cylinder 
A6.l5 Pyramid 
A6.l6 Cone 
A6.l7 Frustum of a Cone 
A6.18 Sphere 
A6.l9 Segment of a Sphere 
A6.20 Sector of a Sphere 
A6.21 Torus 
A7. International System of Units 
A7.01 Base Units 
A7.02 Supplementary Units 
A 7.03 Derived Units 
A 7.04 Prefixes 

Section B. 
CONVERSION FACTORS 
B 1. Linear Measures 
B 2. Weights 
B 3. Area 
B 4. Volume 
B 5. Specific Weights and Volumes 
B 6. Flow Rates and Speeds 
B 7. Pressure 
B 8. Work, Power, and Force 
B 9. Power 
BI0. Heat 
B11. Pressure Conversion to SI Units 
B12. Viscosity 
B13. Metric Standard Units 

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