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Practical Emulsions, Volume 1, Materials and Equipment



 
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Product Code: 9780820602578

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ISBN-13/EAN: 9780820602578
ISBN: 0820602574
Author: Jack L. Bishop, H. Bennett, M. Wulfinghoff
Chemical Publishing
Book - Hardback
Pub Date: Feb 5, 1968
194 Pages
Features

CONTENTS - 

INTRODUCTION - 

1. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS - 

Solutions-
Suspensions-
Emulsions-
Surface Activity- 

2. PROPERTIES OF EMULSIONS -
 
Particle size and arrangement
Rheology
Micelle Theory
Stability and Interfacial Phenomena
Causes of Unstable Emulsions

3. INGREDIENTS AND ADDITIVES - 

Surfactants-Emulsifying Agents 
Wetting Agents 
Foamers 
Protective Colloids
Preservatives 

4. ANALYSIS AND TESTING OF EMULSIONS - 

Type of Emulsion
Density 
Viscosity 
Surface Tension 
Particle Size
Water 
PH-Color Odor Corrosion
Stability 
Performance 
Analytical Procedures 
ASTM Specifications 

5. TECHNIQUES OF EMULSIFICATION - 

English Method
Continental Method

6. EMULSIFYING EQUIPMENT - 

Low-Shear
High-Shear
Rotor-Stator 
Pressurized Fluid 
Vibrational Devices 
Laboratory Equipment 

7. EMULSION PLANTS AND PRODUCTION MACHINERY 

Over-all Plan 
Modes of Operation 
Power Requirements 
Mixing Tanks 
Pumps 
Conveyors 
Materials of Construction 
Instrumentation 
Packaging 

8. SELECTED TOPICS - 

Formulation of Emulsions
HLB-Biodegradability
Regulations 

BIBLIOGRAPHY
LIST OF EMULSIFYING AGENTS 
SUPPLIERS OF EMULSIFYING AGENTS 
GLOSSARY
INDEX 
 
Introduction - 

Emulsions, though not new, are finding new and wider applications daily. One of the first references to emulsions was recorded by Galen (131-c.201), the Greek physician. Beginning with that early reference to the emulsifying power of beeswax, the art and science of emulsification has flourished. Emulsions are prepared and used for a variety of reasons. As oil paint cannot be applied to a damp surface, it is emulsified in water. The oil paint, then, in the form of an emulsion, can be applied to a damp surface. Therefore, the emulsion can change the application characteristics of a material. 

Water is a desirable, cheap diluent, and an emulsion is an easy method of using water to dilute materials that are not soluble in water. In addition, the fire hazard of flammable water-insoluble materials can be decreased through emulsification. The odor and taste of water-insoluble materials can be reduced by the use of an emulsion. Cod-liver oil, for example, loses much of its fishy, oily taste when it is emulsified. The kinetics of many reactions are enhanced through the use of emulsion polymerization techniques. 

On the other hand, emulsions are difficult to manufacture. A small deviation in temperature or mixing speed or small amounts of impurities can prevent the formation of a stable emulsion. Emulsions are sensitive in varying degrees to heat, cold, and age. The production of good, stable emulsions, therefore, is the combination of science and art. It is the purpose of this book to describe the art and technique of emulsification.

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