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Chemical Analysis of Industrial Water

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Product Code: 9780820600178


ISBN-13/EAN: 9780820600178
ISBN: 0826000172
Author: James W. McCoy
Chemical Publishing
Book - Hardback
Pub Date: Feb 3, 1969
306 pages

This classic book has been reprinted by popular demand. Analytical chemists and chemical engineers will find this a well written and well illustrated treatise dealing with (and finding solutions to) the problems of water treatment, plant corrosion, and chemical analysis connected with the chemical process industries, steam and power plants and petroleum refining. An excellent manual for both laboratory and field workers. 


Part I -The Chemical Principles of Water Treatment

A. Objectives in Treating Feed Water for Boilers
1. Prevention of Scales and Deposits 10
(a) External Treatment 12
Chemical Softening-Softening by Cation Exchange -
Reduction of Silica  12
(b) Internal Treatment-Precipitants-Conditioners-Alkalinity  22
(c) Blowdown 26

2. Prevention of Corrosion In Boilers  27
(a) Removal of Oxygen 29
(b) Maintenance of Alkalinity 29

3. Prevention of Corrosion In Preboiler and Condensate Systems 30
(a) Deaeration 30
(b) Neutralization 31
(c) Protective Films 32

4. Prevention of Steam Contamination 32
(a) Priming 32
(b) Foaming 34

5. Prevention of Caustic Embrittlement 34

6. Control of Boiler Operation 34

B. Objectives in Treating Water Used for Cooling
1. Prevention of Scales and Deposits 37
2. Prevention of Corrosion In Cooling Systems 39
3. Prevention of Biological Fouling 42


Part II-The Analysis of Industrial Waters

A. Mineral Content

1.Determination of Alkalinity 47
(a) Phenolphthalein Alkalinity: P Value 50
(b) Methyl Orange Alkalinity: M Value 50
(c) Hydroxide Alkalinity: B Value 50

2. Determination of Aluminum 51

3. Determination of Chloride 53
(a) Mohr Method  54
(b) Potentiometric Method  55

4. Determination of Chromium 57
(a) Volumetric Determination of Chromate in Cooling Water 57
(1) Available Chromate-(2) Total Chromium as Chromate-
(3) Equivalent Weight of Proprietary Mixtures Containing Chromates 60
(b) Colorimetric Determination of Chromate in Cooling Water  61
(c) Determination of Total Chromium in Brines and Waste Waters  63

5. Determination of Copper  65
(a) Colorimetric Determination of Copper in Water  66
(1) Feed Waters and Cooling Waters-(2) Sea Water and Brines  67

6. Determination of Hardness  68
(a) Total Hardness of Water  68
(b) Determination of Calcium Hardness  72

7. Determination of Iron  74
(a) Colorimetric Determination of Iron  74

8. Determination of Phosphate  76
(a) Colorimetric Determination of Ortho Phosphate  78
(b) Colorimetric Determination of Ortho and Poly Phosphates  79
(1) Ortho Phosphate-(2) Total Phosphate  81

9. Determination of Silica  82
(a) Colorimetric Determination of Soluble Silicates in Water  82

10. Determination of Solids  84
(a) Determination of Suspended Solids  85
(b) Conductometric Determination of Dissolved Solids  85
(c) Determination of Total Cations by Ion Exchange  88

11. Determination of Sulfate  90
(a) Turbidimetric Determination of Sulfate  91
(b) Volumetric Determination of Sulfate  93
(c) Gravimetric Determination of Sulfate 94

12. Determination of Sulfite  96
(a) Feed Waters  96
(b) Boiler Waters  97

B. Dissolved Gases
1. Determination of Ammonia In Condensates  98
2. Determination of Carbon Dioxide  101
3. Determination of Oxygen  102

C. Interpretation of Water Analyses
1. Softening by Lime and Removal of Silica  106

2. Operation of Boilers  107
(a) Use of Determination of Chloride to Control Blowdown  107
(b) Relationships Among Alkalinities 108
(c) Conductivity of Boiler Water 109
(d) Ion Exchange of Boiler Waters  111

3. Operation of Cooling Systems   113
(a) Langlier and Ryznar Indices 113
(b) Cycles of Concentration 115

4. Calculations Involving Chemical Equilibria  116

Part III - Special Procedures Related to Water Treatment

A. Analysis of Foul Waters and Alkaline Sulfide Solutions
1. Analysis of Aqueous Solutions Containing Sulfide, Cyanide,
Thiocyanate, and Ammonia 126
2. Analysis of Solutions Containing Polysulflde, Thiosulfate,
Thiocyanate, and Sulfide  131
3. Analysis of Aqueous Solutions Containing Sulfide, Sulfite,
and Thiosulfate  134
4. Analysis of Alkaline Scrubber Solutions Containing Sulfide,
Hydroxide, Carbonate, and Mercaptides  137
(a) Rapid Method for Estimating Free Hydroxide  138
(b) Routine Estimation of Hydroxide, Sulfide, Mercaptan, and
Carbonate  139
(c) Accurate Determination of Hydroxide, Sulfide, and Mercaptan  142

B. Chemical Cleaning of Process Equipment
1. Determination of Available Acid in Chemical Cleaning
Solutions  157
2. Determination of Available Alkali in Chemical Cleaning
Solutions 158

C. Evaluation of Cation Exchange Resins
1. Determination of Capacity of Cation Exchange Resins  164
2. Miscellaneous Tests of Cation Exchange Resins  170


Part IV-Chemical Analysis of Scales, Sludges, and Deposits

A. Preliminary Treatment of the Laboratory Sample

B. Systematic Analysis of Deposits for the Metallic Elements
1. Preparation of the Solution for Analysis 193
2. Estimation of Silica 198
3. Analysis of the Hydrofluoric Acid Resldue   200
4. Group Separation of Iron, Vanadium and Molybdenum;
Partial Separation of Lead and Copper  206
5. Estimation of Molybdenum, Removal of Copper  209
6. Estimation of Iron and Vanadium  210
7. Separation and Estimation of Lead and Copper  212
8. Separation of Phosphate by Ion Exchange Estimation of
Chromium  216
9. Precipitation and Determination of Aluminum  220
10. Group Precipitation of Nickel and Zinc  224
11. Estimation of Nickel  225
12. Estimation of Zinc  225
13. Estimation of Magnesium and Calcium  226
14. Other Components 229

C. Systematic Analysis of Water-Formed Deposits
1. Preparation of the Solution for Analysis  232
2. Estimation of Silica  234
3. Solution of the Hydrofluoric Acid Residue  235
4. Separation of Cations from Anions by Ion Exchange 236
5. Estimation of Phosphate  237
6. Estimation of Sulfate  240
7. Estimation of Iron, Partial Precipitation of Copper  242
8. Estimation of Copper  243
9. Precipitation of Aluminum and Chromium; Estimation of
Aluminum 246
10. Estimation of Chromium  248
11. Estimation of Calcium and Magnesium 248
12. Estimation of Iron, Aluminum and Magnesium Un-attacked
by Acids  252
13. Other Components  255

D. Special Procedures for Deposit Analysis
1. Preparation of the Solution for the Estimation of Sodium,
Chloride, and Sulfate  256
2. Estimation of Sodium 257
3. Estimation of Chloride 257
4. Estimation of Sulfate  258
6. Estimation of Fluoride  258
6. Estimation of Phosphate 259
7. Estimation of Carbonate and Carbon 261
8. Estimation of Sulfur 263
9. Conclusion 265

E. Interpretation of Analytical Results

1. Deposits Formed In Contact With Petroleum  266
(a) Vaporizer Furnaces  266
(b) Recycle Rectifier-HF Alkylation Process  269
(c) Furnace Deposits  271

2. Water-Formed Deposits  272
(a) Deposit From a Superheater   273
(b) Mud From a Steam Generator Preheater  275
(c) Mud From a Water·Wall Header  276
(d) Scale From Turbine Blades   277

3. Corrosion Deposits  280

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